Do’s films include the first ever Laotian horror film and the country’s first submission to the Academy AwardsRead more
A weather alert has been issued for the south of Laos from October 30 to November 3 as tropical storm Matmo makes its way towards the area from Vietnam.Read more
This year’s boat races will take place on a stretch of the Mekong River near the Landmark Mekong Riverside Hotel, in a change of plan announced on Thursday.Read more
Cambodia’s $8 billion microfinance industry, touted by Western aid groups and foreign investors as bringing financial opportunities to the country’s poor, is ensnaring families in crushing debt and could threaten the country’s economyRead more
UNDP’s vehicle for fast-tracking development solutions harvests local expertise, identifies grassroots innovations and taps into a global networkRead more
Two people have died and two others are missing, while more than 54,000 households in six provinces have been affected by storms that have caused widespread flooding.Read more
Boun Hor Khaopadapdin is an annual festival during which the people of Laos “feed” spirits with home-made parcels of food, reflecting their love, respect and gratitude for their deceased ancestors and guardians.Read more
If climate change trends continue and if population continues to increase, water conflicts will probably be an aspect of our future.Read more
Source: Japan Times Lao Airlines said Thursday it is planning to launch regular flights in November connecting the Laotian capitalRead more
A UN Office of Drugs and Crime report released last week states that the methamphetamine trade is now worth between US$30-61 billion per year in East and South East Asia, Australia, New Zealand and Bangladesh.Read more
Laos is facing an outbreak of the most virulent form of the dengue virus this rainy season.Read more
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) on Saturday added the Plain of Jars in Xieng Khuang province to its list of World Heritage Sites.Read more
Landlocked, secretive and with ungovernable borders, Laos has become a sluice for transporting Made-In-Myanmar meth to the drug hungry markets of Southeast Asia and Australia, where billion-dollar seizures are now being made.Read more
Lots of parents are looking at what they can do with their children over summer. J&C Services has taken the hard work out of it and found the best summer camps happening here in Vientiane.Read more
Poor construction methods, with soil used in place of concrete, caused a fatal hydropower dam collapse last year in Laos, a panel of water experts has concluded, prompting a rejection of its findings by the South Korean firm that built the project.Read more
While traveling throughout Laos in search of historical artefacts in 2006, researchers made an unusual discovery. In a small town in remote, southern Salavan Province, they came across an old palm-leaf manuscript composed entirely in verse.Read more
When the USA donated cement and funds to expand the airport in Laos, the Laotians built a massive monument instead.Read more
By the end of 2019 Thailand will be free from three types of plastic – microbeads, cap seals and oxo-degradable plastics.Read more
In Laos, newly-empowered consumers are basking in the benefits of the polymer industry without knowing the consequences of their consumption on marine ecosystems.Read more
Air pollution levels of particulate matter that are 2.5 micrometres and less in diameter (PM2.5) have returned to safe levels after a few days of rainfall.Read more
Refillmybottle provides online maps that identify where refillers can walk in and fill up their bottle with clean drinkable water for free.Read more
Anyone who was planning to visit the Royal Thai Embassy in Vientiane to apply for a tourist or non-immigrant visa should be aware that there are no appointments available for at least two weeks.Read more
The economy expert Banyong Pongpanich was studying recent statistics last week when he made an interesting discovery.Read more
Recent times have seen the emergence of a dangerous trend that would adversely affect elephant populations everywhere. This is the growing demand for the skins of elephants, especially, of the Asian elephant.Read more
A new report by the World Health Organisation paints a grim picture regarding road safety in Thailand.Read more
The National Assembly has approved the Brou as an official ethnic group of the Lao PDR. As a result, the country now has 50 ethnic groups.Read more
Thailand’s government is considering a proposed Life Partnership Bill, which would guarantee same-sex couples rights similar to couples in traditional marriages, including the use of one’s spouse’s surname, property rights and the right to end the partnership.Read more
Tina Maharath is the first Laotian American state senator and the first Asian American woman in the General Assembly.Read more
That is the claim of a Stanford University engineering expert who has scientifically analyzed the site of the disaster that likely killed hundreds of Lao villagersRead more
Princess Beatrice spent a week in South East Asia following the royal wedding for a very special cause – to run a half marathon supporting a children’s hospital.Read more
Maybank Foundation has expanded its Maybank Women Eco-Weavers centre in Laos with the addition of a hostel for the women who are being trained in this traditional skill.Read more
A new study says a warming globe will be bad news for barley, an essential ingredient in the world’s most popular alcoholic beverage.Read more
Three Lao nationals – one man and two women – have been arrested while trying to cross the border into Laos from Nong Khai with Bt38 million in undeclared Thai banknotes hidden in their sedan’s speaker boxes and compartments.Read more
Mother and Child Hospital (MCH) in Vientiane has presented its successful results of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatments using intracytoplasmic sperm Injection (ICSI) for women wanting to fall pregnant.Read more
A meeting will be held this week in Xieng Khuang province to report on the progress made for the consideration of the Plain of Jars (Thong Hai Hin) as a potential UNESCO World Heritage Site.Read more
Source: The Asean Post Last July, Lao witnessed a catastrophe when the Xe-Pian Xe Namnoy dam located on the XeRead more
The north and central regions of Laos have been put on alert for heavy downpours after weather forecasters warned that Typhoon Mangkhut and Tropical Storm Barijat are expected to pass over Laos on coming Monday and Tuesday.Read more
Same-sex relationships are still criminalised in much of the world, however, including in at least 20 countries in Asia. Some countries have enacted protections for the LGBTQ, but these are often limited and the community continues to face discrimination in spite of them.Read more
Widespread flooding in Laos in recent weeks has blocked the start of the school year in the Southeast Asian country, with as many as 1,000 schools left unable to open by the Sept. 3 beginning of the new term, Lao sources say.Read more
A UXO Lao team working in Attapeu province hopes to finish clearing explosive devices from land allocated for new housing for flood victims in Sanamxay district next month.Read more
The Lao PDR has a younger population than any country in Southeast Asia, with nearly 60% below the age of 25 years, and nearly 22% of the population are adolescent girls and boys, aged 10-19 years.Read more
Yesterday, provinces in at-risk areas were on the alert and monitoring the level of the Mekong, especially in Vientiane, Luang Prabang, Pakxan district in Borikhamxay province, Thakhaek district in Khammuan province, and Pakxe in Champassak province.Read more
Military personnel and a rescue team from Singapore are continuing the search for the 98 people still missing in the wake of the dam burst, with the number of dead confirmed at 36.Read more
The first warning came at 4.00 p.m., one hour later the water started to flow through the village, and by late evening it was a torrent.Read more
A high-ranking Lao official suggested Thursday that a dam collapse earlier this week in Attapeu province was the result of faulty construction and said the project’s developer should be held accountable, as the death toll from flooding has reached 30, with more than 20 hospitalized for injuries.Read more
The Trump administration has suspended the issuing of visas to citizens of the Southeast Asian countries of Myanmar and Laos, following both governments’ refusal to take back citizens who had been ordered deported from the U.S.Read more
The government is contemplating a cut in budget expenditure to maintain financial liquidity following a revenue shortfall during the past four months of this year.Read more
The U.S. State Department downgraded Myanmar and Laos to Tier 3, its lowest ranking, in an annual report on human trafficking released today, citing the countries’ failure to make significant efforts to combat the trade.Read more
Amendments to the Law on Family Registration passed by the National Assembly (NA) recently will ease and regulate marriage between Lao and foreign nationals as well as family registration affairs in general.Read more
The government has approved a change in the status of Luang Prabang, Kaysone Phomvihane and Pakxe from towns to new cities, according to the Ministry of Home Affairs.Read more
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith has told ethnic Lao living in Australia that the Lao government offers special privileges for people of Lao ethnicity planning to visit and contribute to the development of their motherland.Read more
THAI currency is getting a facelift, with new banknotes to feature the face of King Maha Vajiralongkorn, also known as Rama X.Read more
In the latest edition of The Economist Intelligence Unit’s 2017 Democracy Index, there are 19 “fully democratic” countries in the world. None of them are located in Asia.
At best, Asian nations such as Japan and India are found to be “flawed democracies” while North Korea and Myanmar are among its most authoritarian.
Thai police have arrested a man alleged to be the head of Asia’s biggest illegal wildlife trading networks.
Boonchai Bach, a 40-year-old Thai of Vietnamese origin, was detained in a town on the border with Laos.
Drugs, theft, gambling and other forms of undesirable conduct in the capital were raised for discussion at a four-day session of the Vientiane People’s Council, which ended on Friday.Read more
European Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Lao (ECCIL) has published a calendar of holidays in 2018 to help readers get an overview of public and customary holidays in Laos this yearRead more
Vientiane authorities have agreed to the creation of a green lung for city residents and visitors in the form of a public park along the Mekong River in Sisattanak district.
The 31,500 square metre site is located behind the Don Chan Palace hotel and adjoins Chao Anouvong park.
Savannakhet province now has a population of 1 million people, making it the most populous province in Laos, the provincial Statistics Bureau reported on Thursday.Read more
Thailand, land of golden temples, white-sand beaches, smiling hosts. Or of overcrowded airports, epic traffic jams and littered seashores.
Facing a deluge of Chinese tourists that has strained its airports beyond capacity, the Southeast Asian nation is
Doksuri is expected to be one of the strongest tropical cyclones to strike Vietnam and Laos in recent years.Read more
We meet three expats who moved abroad and brought their kids with them. They share the challenges they faced and what they have learned.Read more
Thai Prime Minister Chan-o-cha has ordered relevant agencies to ensure that long immigration queues at Don Mueang International Airport will be resolved quickly.Read more
‘I wrote the list a couple years back and have gotten enough chuckles from other expats that at least some of them seem to reflect life for many of us over here!
You know you’re raising kids overseas when…
1. When you say, “We’re going home,” your kids ask, “Which one?”
2. It’s 27 C outside but your kids want a jacket.
3. Hundreds of total strangers have ……
Two children have died, 52 people have been rescued and three children are missing after they fell into a river in Luang Prabang province on Friday morning when the slatted wooden bridge they were walking on tipped sideways.
Fifty-seven schoolchildren, a teacher, and a motorcyclist fell off the bridge into the Xeng River at around 7am in Vangbay village, after one of the main ….
Lao netizens have welcomed US President Barack Obama’s upcoming visit to the country and expressed hope that the US will increase its assistance to help Laos clearing unexploded ordnance (UXO), which remains contaminated in provinces across the country.
The netizens have expressed their views on the …..
Phoudoi Xayachak was shot to fame after his photo was posted on social media. He is now thought to be the tallest man in Laos.
Phoudoi, whose name means mountain, was born into a farming family in 1990 in Namsay-theung village, Pathoumphone district, Champassak province. He was measured at 2.25 metres in June this year.
It is believed that he holds the record for the …..
Myanmar and Laotian state media reported that Suu Kyi accompanied Myanmar President Htin Kyaw on the visit, which came at the invitation of the president of Laos, Bounnhang Vorachit.
Htin Kyaw was the first head of state to be hosted by Bounnhang, who officially assumed his post just three weeks ago.
The purpose of the visit was to strengthen relations and cooperation between …..
Record-high temperatures and severe drought are causing misery for hundreds of millions of people in Asia.
“In Southeast Asia this heat wave joins the historical ones of 1960, 1983 and 1998, but as for duration, intensity and affected area it is definitely the strongest heat wave for Thailand, Laos and Cambodia,” said …
Members of the National Assembly’s 8th Legislature elected Mr Bounnhang Vorachit as the new President of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic at the Assembly’s inaugural session this morning.
They also elected Mr Phankham Viphavanh as …..
Excavations by Lao and Australian archaeologists at the Plain of Jars Site 1 in Paek district, Xieng Khuang province, have uncovered three human remains and some artefacts dating back 2,500-3,000 years.
Two human remains were found together at Jar Site 1 some 70cm ……
On Saturday J&C Services honored the outstanding performance of Mrs. “Nounou” Arinya Phonseya with the “Employee of the Year” award.
Nounou joined J&C Services in 2009 as the Finance and Office Manager. “Over the many years Nounou has shown an outstanding performance, her loyalty and diligence is recognized by the entire team” says Stephan, Senior Partner at J&C Services.
“We receive so many good feedback from our clients about …..
At a campaign stop in Iowa, Hillary Clinton got asked an unexpected foreign policy question about unexploded bombs in Laos—leftovers from the Vietnam War and she nailed it …..Read more
Research by the Ministry of Planning and Investment revealed last week that on current growth rates the population of Laos will climb to 10 million in 2020.
The ministry expects that the figure this year should be about 6.8 million, according to what was said at a meeting in Vientiane on Wednesday on the findings of the population …..
Like many other cities of the world, the Laotian capital, with its improving economy and standard of living, is not spared from the scourge of urban living: the proliferation of plastics and products bottled or wrapped in plastics.
The biggest problem is that wrappers or bottles made of plastic materials are carelessly thrown just about anywhere. Most of them end up clogging canals and waterways or polluting the waters of the mighty Mekong River.
Hundreds of tons of garbage, that include plastic materials, are being scavenged in the whole city every day. And these include refuse from the ……
For nine days at the end of January Vientiane will have a designated walking area alongside the Mekong, designed to offer residents and visitors a peaceful place with a panoramic view where they can take an evening stroll.
“We will close the riverside road in the evening and turn it into a pedestrian walkway for nine days starting from January 24. If it proves popular we will consider continuing with it.”
The installation of temporary bollards to block vehicular traffic from 6 pm until midnight each day will create a pedestrian zone and allow people to walk in ….
Thailand’s Soi Dog Foundation has some of the biggest stars in Britain speaking out against the dog-meat trade in a video that starts with a warning about its “distressing” content.
Dame Judi Dench, Ricky Gervais and two of the stars of the international-hit series “Downton Abbey” – Laura Carmichael and Phyllis Logan – give voice to the “I Never Knew” campaign in the moving (and, yes, distressing) three-minute video that drives home what you probably didn’t want to know. But of course you should know …
Policy developers have debated whether the term of office served by the President of the Lao PDR should be indicated in the Constitution, to specify that the president is permitted to serve not more than two consecutive terms.
The existing Constitution, which has been amended once in 2003, does not indicate how many terms the president is permitted to serve. Neither is the term of office spelt out in any law or regulation.
The current Constitution indicates that the president has …..
Laos Statistics Bureau has confirmed it shall survey of the population via a census to be conducted across the country over seven days at a projected cost of US$7.2million.
Census surveyors will proceed to count the population as at March 1, 2015.
Public awareness campaigns are getting underway. A poster from the Department of Social Statistics implores people not to run from the census surveyors as they don’t go to catch to people, but to count them in every corner of ….
To celebrate the tremendous development of the Lao coffee sector and to further promote the unique Lao coffee to the domestic and foreign markets, Lao Coffee Association is organizing the 1st Lao Coffee Festival, from 24 – 26 October 2014 at the Arawan Riverside Hotel and Champasak Grand Hotel in Pakse.
The Lao Coffee Festival will include various activities like exhibition of Lao coffee products, seminars on topics on production background of Lao coffee, present state of the world coffee trade, trends in prices, production ….
Lao World Public Company (Lao World) plans to invest US$30 million constructing the new Thongkhankham market in Chanthabouly district, Vientiane.
This new market and shopping complex will comprise a six-storey high building and 18,000 square metres of retail outlets and parking.
More details of the project will ….
No concrete solution has been determined to save Laos’ colonial and traditional buildings, which are disappearing due to urbanisation.
Officials from the Ministry of Information, Culture and Tourism’s Heritage Department expressed concern that if there were no coordinated preservation efforts or proper town planning the historical architecture would disappear.
Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia are rich in colonial French architecture.
Tourists and foreign expatriates told Vientiane Times that Vientiane used to have the potential to become one of the most attractive and charming cities in Southeast Asia, but a lack of good planning and proper zoning has gradually eroded the city’s ….
Retirement has changed radically over the last few decades in developed countries.
Years ago, when you expected to work most of your life for a single, large employer, you could count on a pension. Retirement planning meant figuring out how to use your free time when you stopped working, not calculating rates of return and deciphering tax rules. You didn’t have to worry.
Now though, its a different story. In the new modern world of transient employment and Countries of residence most workers are not enrolled in pension plans, and the numbers continue to drop as Company schemes continue to close or not be offered. Because fewer and fewer people enjoy the security ….
Explosions were rocking Lao capital Vientiane’s biggest marketplace, Thong Khan Kham after a fire started at approximately 7:40 p.m. yesterday.
One shopkeeper, who operates a curtain shop on the street outside Thong Khan Kham told Xinhua that the fire broke out from a corner of the marketplace before spreading quickly around 7:40 p.m. The shopkeeper believed that not many people were injured in the blaze as the market closed just over an hour earlier at 6:30 p.m.
The fire has knocked out power for surrounding areas and locals were evacuating the ….
Away from the sea, Laos produces salt by mining in Vientiane basin that shares potash deposits of Sakon Nakhon basin of Khorat Plateau in Thailand.
Named after its abundance of salt deposits, Boukeua (keua means salt) village has the 35-year-old salt factory in the country, the Khoksaath Iodized Salt Factory, which is 21 kilometers from Vientiane Capital.
The compound was silent as a cemetery on a Sunday. Over a hundred of rectangular man-made ponds for drying brine (water saturated with salt water) in the sun, spread in the entire …..
Americans seem to believe that once the U.S. military exits a foreign country, its moral accountability ends. But the deadly consequences — and culpability — continue long after the last soldier leaves.
The U.S. military bombed Laos from 1964 to 1973, during its war on Vietnam, to disrupt the Ho Chi Minh trail, the route for military personnel and equipment from North Vietnam to South Vietnam, which ran through Laos and Cambodia. According to the website Legacies of War, “the U.S. dropped over 2 million tons of ordnance over Laos in ……
After production problems and delays, the Federal Reserve will finally circulate a new $100 bill today. The aim of the redesigned bank note is to make it harder to fake.
Due to the enhanced security features “it only takes a few seconds to check the new $100 note and know it’s real,” according to Newmoney.gov, a website affiliated with the Federal Reserve Board,Treasury Department and U.S. Secret Service.
Check out a decade’s worth of research and development that went into America’s newest bank note.: ….
Chinese Premier Li Keqiang met with Prime Minister Thongsing Thammavong in Nanning on Monday, pledging to further their all-round strategic partnership.
Li said as good neighbours, China and Laos can further promote strategic coordination, economic cooperation and extensive cultural exchange, and work together on major projects in transportation, energy and agriculture, so as to lift China-Laos relations to a new level.
He called on Laos to continue to …..
Heritage officials have expressed concern over the number of French colonial buildings that have disappeared from the capital due to urbanisation in recent years.
There are growing concerns that much of the colonial architecture in Vientiane, which is part of the national heritage of Laos, is being demolished without permission in order to develop the land, particularly in the city.
The French colonial architecture that has remained in the country since France left Laos is one of the unique attractions of the nation, which continues to attract many tourists to ……
Salaries for state employees will increase by 1,900 kip per index as planned next fiscal year, which will begin in October, despite current budget tension.
At its ongoing fifth ordinary session the National Assembly approved in principle the state budget plan for the next fiscal year giving a green light for the government to spend up to 29,580 billion kip or 32.63 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) for total spending next year including salary expenditure.
The plan also requires the government to collect revenue of at least …
Shadowed by a dense green and brown jungle canopy, Phakhai Keo methodically guides her metal detector across a thick carpet of grass, leaf and vine until a loud squeal cuts the still of the forest like a machete.
She has found a deadly remnant of a war that ended long before she was born — and she couldn’t be happier. “The day we find nothing is not so fulfilling,” says the 25-year-old, who has spent the last three months combing the jungles and fields of southern Laos for unexploded cluster munitions.
Phakhai is part of a six-person team of deminers from ……
Same-sex couples in France are not allowed to marry if one of the two is a Lao citizen or an expatriate of one of 11 countries, French officials said.
France signed agreements with the countries stipulating their expatriates are prohibited from marrying under France’s new gay marriage law passed in May.
The 11 countries are Laos, Poland, …..
The holiday season is a time to bond with family and friends. But for many, it is also a time for overeating and weight gain.
So how can one get rid of all that junk from his system? Through detoxification, said raw food practitioner Margo. She said drinking lots of water and fresh fruit and vegetable juices, coupled with rest and exercise, will help flush all the salt, oil and alcohol out of the body.
“Our body is like a car. You bring it to a shop to clean it, the tubes and the pipes. It’s the same with our bodies. We drink fresh juices and…..
The Belgian government invited Dr Jean-Marie Hospied to become their resident representative here on March 12 this year. His appointment as Honorary Consul of the Kingdom of Belgium in the Lao PDR, at Xieng Nuyen village (opposite the Lao and French Red Cross) in Vientiane, was officially accepted by the Lao government on Saturday.
Being a physician who specialises in tropical diseases and recognising that his skills would be in demand here, Dr Hospied established the French Embassy Medical Clinic in Simeuang village, Vientiane, in 2006 and has been a staunch member of the medical community ever since.
The principal duty of the Honorary Consul is to promote goodwill and friendship between ……
After being renovated for almost a year, the Nam Phou fountain reopens to the public and international tourists. Being granted with a concession lasting 30 years, the developer, Asia Investment and Finance Service Company, confirms that the fountain will remain a public space where local people and tourists can come to relax and enjoy the facilities.
The developer had to modify the original design six times to accommodate the public fear of …..
If you’ve got a digital camera (or even a smart phone), some white walls and another person, you can get your own visa photos for nothing – instead of paying the photo shop for six photos.
After you’ve taken the digital shot, visit www.epassportphoto.com and, using the country specifications guide, you upload the photo into
The death penalty is necessary for brutal crimes, but the punishment should be implemented fairly and humanely, National Assembly (NA) members have said.
This was the consensus among NA members when they met on Tuesday to debate the amendment of the Law on Criminal Procedure. “The use of the death penalty is unavoidable, but in some cases it should not be done by firing squad,” NA member for Vientiane Prof. Dr Kikeo Khaykhamphithoun said.
“If the international community is interested in why Laos is serious on this matter, we can tell the world that it’s because of our determination to fight crimes like drug trafficking,” Dr Duangsavat said.
Despite a well-run domestic prevention and treatment programs in Laos, the overall incidence of HIV/AIDS in the country seemed to be going up, according to UNAIDS Country Coordinator for Laos Pascal Stenier.
“The number of new cases for last year is estimated to be one thousand, which is three new infections per day,” Stenier said
With the support of the Lao government, extensive prevention, testing, monitoring and treatment campaigns have been launched over the last decade. Stenier said he was very pleased with some recent progress in support for HIV-affected individuals with the Lao government’s official recognition of the Lao Network of People Living with HIV.
Laos has held its first ever gay pride event in what supporters hope is a sign of softening social values in the small communist country.
Although homosexuality is legal in Laos, it is frowned upon by many among the socially conservative nation of around six million people, and event organisers decided against holding a parade as is common at global pride events.
Instead, around 100 lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people gathered on a US embassy sports field in the capital Vientiane to watch performances relating to their marginalised position in society and sip beers provided by the capital’s handful of gay-friendly bars.
Are they a gang of reveling runner enthusiasts as their name implies or are the Hash House Harriers into something even more mysterious?
With their own argot, rituals, traditions, and leadership positions including titles like ‘Grand master’, ‘Religious Advisor’, and… ‘Hare’, one might expect something more insidious is going on, but in fact what they are at their core is a group of runners who enjoy a good nightcap.
They joke that they are ‘drinkers with a running problem’, but others emphasize that they are more like a tight family that helps each other. Some groups and people focus more on the running, while others are more into the social aspect, but every hasher expresses that all people are welcome as long as they have a good sense of humor and believe it if you are told to bring a dry bag.
The Vientiane authorities have finally agreed to the project design, which is the sixth that the developers have submitted.
Originally, a two-storey restaurant was planned but the authorities refused to approve this and requested a more modest structure that was in keeping with the size and character of the square.
Plans to turn Vientiane’s That Luang marsh into an attractive urban development envisage an area of green spaces, wetlands, a public park, new roads, residential areas, and commercial centres. The plan would divide That Luang marsh into five zones, covering an area of 2,200 hectares, of which 660 hectares would be dry land and the rest wetlands.
Most people agree that if That Luang marsh is developed as planned, Vientiane could be one of the most liveable and sustainable cities in the region.
Vientiane Police Headquarters has issued a warning notice to villagers, public offices and business units to be on the alert for possible fire outbreaks during the dry season.
The warning comes as authorities aim to reduce the number of fire incidents in the capital, which have cause loss of life and property in past years.
Electrical shorts and lightning candles have been among the main causes of fires in Vientiane in the past.